Michael Faraday – Experimental Physicist and Chemist
Michael Faraday was born on September 22, 1791 in London. His family was not well-off, so the most basic education was just what parents could afford. At the age of 14, he became an apprentice at a bookstore, and for the next seven years he expanded his education by reading books with various scientific themes.
He attended the lectures of chemists Humphry Davy (held in 1812 at the premises of the Royal Society), after which he wrote to the said chemist, seeking him as an assistant. However, although initially refused, Davy gave him a job as a laboratory assistant in Royal Society in 1813.
A year later, Faraday, along with Davy and his wife, set out on an eighteen-month trip to Europe, visiting France, Switzerland, Italy, and Belgium, and getting to know many influential scientists of that time. Upon returning to England, he continued to work in the Royal Society, assisting David and other scientists during their experiments.
Several years later, he published a work on electromagnetic rotation, the principle on which the work of an electric motor is based. In addition to researching the work of an electric motor, he also dealt with various other projects and experiments. He started lecturing at the Royal Society on Friday night in 1826, and soon he also founded Christmas lectures, which are still held. These lectures helped him to gain the reputation of an outstanding scientific lecturer at that time.
He married Sarah Bernard in 1821. They had a happy and harmonious marriage, but they never had children.
In 1831, Faraday discovered electromagnetic induction, a principle that drives an electric transformer and a generator. This discovery has made it possible for electricity from a mere interest to become powerful, new technology. Since then, Faraday has been mainly concerned with developing his ideas on electricity. Thanks to him, the terminals of electrodes, cathodes and ions are copied. He used his scientific knowledge in practice, assisting scientific advisers and university professors.
However, at the beginning of the forties, his health began to deteriorate, soon he began to lose his memory, and so did his research work.
He died on August 25, 1867, in his house at Hampton Court.
The greatest and most famous of Faraday’s works were related to electricity. The discovery of Danish chemist Hans Christian Orsted that the magnetic needle turns away if it is found near a conductor through which the electric current flows, prompted Davy to try to construct an electric motor in 1821 using Orsted’s electromagnetism, but failed. After discussing with them, Faraday began to work on a device that would operate on the principle of electromagnetic rotation: if a half-inch of a magnet (a similar hinge) is placed in a flat metal glass filled with mercury, and in the cup pulled from both ends of the copper wire, the pole relies on the half of the magnet and when the electric current is released from the electric battery through the mercury, it will, through the wire, force the wire to rotate around the magnet. If this accessory is placed on the other half of the magnet, the wire will start to rotate to the opposite side.
This invention is known as a homopolar motor. These experiments and inventions laid the foundations of modern electromagnetic technology. But then he made a mistake. He published his experiment before showing Volaston and Davy, which led to controversy and was the cause of his retreat from the field of electromagnetism for several years.
Akon for ten years, in 1831, he started a series of experiments in which he discovered electromagnetic induction. It is possible that Joseph Henry discovered self-induction a few months before Farade, but both discoveries are overshadowed by the discovery of the Italian Francesco Zantedeki. He discovered that if a magnet passes through a wire circle, the magnet will be held in the middle of the circle.
His esperiments have shown that a variable magnetic field induces (causes) an electric current. This theory is mathematically called Faraday’s law, and later it became one of the four Maxwell equations.
Faraday used this to construct an electrical dynamo, a precursor to a modern generator.
Faraday claimed that electromagnetic waves spread in an empty space around the conductor, but that experiment had never been completed. His fellow scientists have dismissed such an idea, and Faraday did not live to see the acceptance of his idea. Faraday’s concept of the flux lines that emerge from charged bodies and magnets has provided a way to conceive the appearance of electric and magnetic fields. This model was a milestone for the successful construction of electromechanical machines that dominated engineering since the 19th century.
Faraday was also involved in chemistry, and he discovered new substances, oxidation numbers and how to convert gases into liquids. He also discovered the laws of electrolysis and introduced the terms anode, cathode, electrode and ion.
In 1845 he discovered what we now call Faraday’s effect and a phenomenon called diamagnetism. The direction of the polarization of a linearly polarized light can be rotated by an external magnetic field in the right direction. In his notebook, he wrote: “I finally managed to shed light on the magnetic lines of force and to magnetize the light of the light.” It proved the connection between magnetism and light. In working with static electricity, Faraday showed that the electricity in the conductor is moving towards the outside, that is, in the inside of the conductor. This is because electricity is distributed over the surface in a manner that rescues the electric field in the interior. This effect is called the Faraday’s cage.