Luigi Galvani and Galvanometer
Luigi Galvani was an Italian physician and physicist. He is known for researching the properties and effects of electricity on animal tissue, which later led to the formation of galvanic fibers.
Luigi was born on Septembar the 9th 1737. His father was a prominent physician, who insisted that Luigi move at his feet. However, Luigi initially did not show interest in medicine, but enrolled in the study of theology. Realizing that this was not his call, he switched to medicine, which he completed in 1762. In the same year he became an anatomy professor at the University of Bologna, where he also graduated.
He married in 1762 with the daughter of a professor at the Bologna Academy of Sciences, and became the president of that same academy in 1772.
As professor of anatomy, he was most prominent in research on the urogenital tract of birds. But his greatest discovery is something completely different. During a random experiment, he discovered that the frog’s leg muscle would be clogged if it was connected to an iron wire, and a nerve with a copper wire. Accordingly, he made an instrument that connects nerve frogs with one metal, and the muscle with another. He was aware of the fact that the animal’s body is crushed when it acts on it with some kind of electricity.
This discovery has played a significant historical role in the degradation of bioelectricity. Galvani found that electricity does not flow directly from the conductor to the frog, but through the conductor it comes to another element, which he called a “metal arch”.
A few years later, Italian physicist Alessandro Volta challenged Galvani’s discovery, stating that animal electricity does not actually exist. Galvani did not advertise during this provocation, and many experts of that time were divided opinions. It was not until the middle of the 19th century that a point was placed on this discussion and it was confirmed that there was electricity in animals and that Galvanis’ effort and work were not in vain.
Galvanic current is a DC current of constant strength, as originally obtained only from galvanic articles, while today it can also be obtained by converting from alternating or pulsating current using electronic rectifiers and stabilizers. The first years of the application of galvanic articles by Alexander von Humboldt suggested that, in order to distinguish electrostatic phenomena, phenomena caused by electric currents from galvanic articles, that is, electrochemical phenomena, are called galvanism.
Galvanic article or galvanic element is the primary electrical article or non-renewable source of electric current in which, unlike a secondary article (battery), chemical energy irreversibly turns into electrical. The first galvanic article was constructed in 1800 by Alessandro Volta, based on the observation of Luigi Galvani on the electrical phenomena in contact with metals and tissues (frogs). The Galvanic article consists of two electrodes of different metal conductors, in contact with the electrolyte, from a depolarizer to prevent or delay polarization (unwanted chemical change on electrodes).
Galvanization is the application of a DC current of constant strength, or so-called galvanic currents. In medicine, electroplating is the application of a constant, constant current for the treatment. Its action changes the permeability of cell membranes, blood vessels are spreading, metabolic processes improve, lung resorption accelerates, reduces skeletal muscle cramps and alleviates pain. While the galvanic current of constant strength flows, it does not irritate the muscle; muscle contraction occurs only when the circuit breaks (opening or closing) of the circuit. Galvanization is applied for 10 to 20 minutes, usually 10 to 15 procedures in one series. Indications are various painful conditions, especially neuralgia, peripheral nerve damage, paraesthesia, vascular diseases, and others. In the case of four-cell bath, the patient sits and submerges his hands and feet in four plastic tubes filled with water, which contain graphite electrodes. This can work on the whole body. The Hydrogalvanian bath is a form of electrotherapy where a galvanic current in a full-bath tub is used, in which the patient is immersed. In the technique, electroplating is applied to galvanotechnics.
Galvanometer is a particularly sensitive measuring instrument which serves to measure very low electrical currents. It is applied in laboratories, for example, for measuring surface currents, large insulation resistances and as indicators in bridges and compensators. For the measurement of direct current, a galvanometer with a moving coil and a galvanometer with a moving magnet are used, and for the measurement of alternating currents, a vibrational galvanometer. The current is struck by ballistic galvanometer (which has a long swinging period), and magnetic flux meters, high attenuation galvanometer and a small counter-counter (no spring to return to the starting position).
Luigi Galvani died on December 4, 1798, in Bologna, in the house where he grew up.