Louis Pasteur – Finder of an Anti-Rabies Vaccine
Louis Pasteur (December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a microbiologist and chemist, he confirmed that bacteria are disease-causing agents and set the basics of immunology by improving vaccination methods and finding an anti-rabies vaccine.
Louis Pasteur was born on December 27, 1822, in Dole, France. He was a good student, and he was particularly interested in chemistry and art. He could draw and paint. In 1840, he obtained a degree in art, a chemistry diploma in 1842, and in 1847 a doctorate from the same field.
For several years he spent as a researcher and lecturer at one University in France, and then in 1848 he became a chemistry professor in Strasbourg. There he met Maria Laurent, who married on May 29, 1849. She had five children with her, but only two survived.
His first research concerned the optical properties of tartaric acid. Until then, it was not known why natural tartaric acid precipitates the plane of polarization of light, and the synthetic does not, although they are chemically the same composition. After much work on the separation of tiny crystals, he succeeded in demonstrating that crystals of one type turn light into one, and those of the other type to the other side. Their mixing does not affect the level of polarization. He concluded that this is a consequence of the asymmetry of the tartaric acid molecule, which is now known in science as a chirality.
In 1854, Louis Paster became Professor of Chemistry and Dean of the University of Lille. He worked there to find a solution to problems in the production of alcohol. Working on the theory of microbes, Pasteur had no new discoveries, but he developed his old theories through experiments.
His theories were accepted in Europe when he proved that organisms such as bacteria were responsible for acidification, i.e. spoilage of wine, beer and milk. Then he came up with the idea that the bacteria can be removed by bringing the liquid to boiling and then by cooling it. The first test of this process was carried out on April 20, 1862. Today, this process is called pasteurization.
The next area of interest was fermentation. He showed that fermentation is caused by microorganisms, and that this is not a spontaneous process. For this he used a glass bottle with a long neck folded down. The bottle would have a nutritious broth. The specific shape of the bottle did not allow dust particles (where the bacteria were collected) to reach the nutrient medium so that no fermentation occurred.
With this experiment, Paster proved the inaccuracy of the theory of a spontaneous generation of living organisms. He went a step further and showed that heating of the wine at 57 ° led to the elimination of bacteria in it (Pasteurization).
He established the theory that microorganisms are responsible for the occurrence of disease in humans, which later led to the development of antiseptic methods in surgery.
Pasteur first discovered the vaccine in 1879 when he was studying a disease called chicken cholera. Chickens got sick, but bacteria were weakened by luck. Pasteur noticed, when he tried to infect them with the same bacteria, that chickens developed immunity to them. In July 1885, Pasteur was vaccinated by a boy who bitten by dog infected with rabies. The efficacy of the rabies vaccine has brought him a tremendous success.
In the next stage of the study, Pasteur studied chicken cholera. Fortunately, the strain of bacteria that infected the chickens was weakened. When he tried to infect them the next time, he found that it was not possible. Infection of the weakened strain of bacteria has made chickens become immune to this disease.
During the 1870s, he applied his methods of immunization to anthrax livestock disease.
The principle of using a weaker form of the disease to create resistance to severe infection was not new. Edward Jenner long ago developed a vaccine against the pox. What was new was that a weakened variant of the disease was now produced by human intervention. Pasteur gave the name of the vaccine to these deliberately weakened disease susceptors as a mark of respect for Jenner.
Pasteur has been partially paralyzed since 1868 due to a stroke, but this did not stop him from continuing his research. He celebrated his 70th birthday in Sorbonne, and the officials were the most important scientists of that time. At this time, his paralysis worsened and Louis Pasteur passed away on September 28, 1895.