Isaac Newton – the Movement; the Body; the Forces
Isaac Newton was an English physicist and mathematician, and today he is one of the greatest scientists of his time. With his discoveries in the fields of optics, motion and mathematics, he laid the foundations of modern physics. His research began with the reputation of Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo, Dekart, and many other well-known scientists.
He was born on January 4, 1643 in Lincolnshire County in England. His father, a successful farmer, died three months before his birth. His mother remarried a few years later, but as Newton did not like his mother’s choice, so he remained to live with his grandmother. He did not have a happy childhood, and that later reflected on his personality. He was emotionally unstable, and his whole life felt a sense of resentment toward his mother.
When he was 12, he went to the Royal School in Grantam, where he was primarily taught in social sciences. Five years later, his mother forced him to leave school to become a farmer. Fortunately for the future of science, Newton had neither the will nor the gift of agriculture, and his mother allowed him to return to school, where he would end up as the best student.
Education and contributions to the teachings of Isaac Newton
The University of Cambridge enrolled in 1661, where he began to study mathematics, optics, physics and astronomy. He tried to support himself and pay his tuition, so he worked as a waiter and arranged rooms for richer students. Four years later, the university closes on a plague epidemic, and Newton returns to Woolsthorpe. The two years he spent there were extremely fertile and significant for science because at that time he began to think about the laws of gravity. He also paid attention to optics and mathematics by elaborating his ideas on the infinitesimal account.
Reading the works of Galileo, Boyle, and Kepler, he expressed the desire to come to some discovery himself. He returned to Cambridge in 1667, where he continued his trials at the Trinity College, and two years later he became a professor at the Lucas Department of Mathematics.
There is a story about how the apples falling from the tree inspired Newton to formulate the theory of gravity.
It was not until after the construction of the reflection telescope, which is now known as the Newton’s telescope, He then became a member of the Royal Society for the Advancement of Natural Knowledge in London. During that period, he conducted a series of experiments on the reflection of light, revealing that white light consists of the same color system that makes up a long one. Then he launched modern research in optics. On the subject of light and color, he published a book titled “Optics” in 1704. He investigated and published works on the history, theology, and alchemy.
With the support of his friend, astronomer Edmund Hale in 1687, Newton published his most important work, The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy (in the original – Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica). The book is now popularly called the Principles, and Newton has highlighted and explained the laws of gravity and the laws of movement, which for centuries have remained in the forefront of science.
A set of three basic laws of physics deals with the movement of the body and forces that act on this body.
First Newton’s law – law of inertia
Second Newton’s law – the law of force
Third Newton’s law – the law of action and reaction
In addition to these laws, the book has elaborated in detail the theory of colors, already mentioned. He was the first to represent the fact that color is an internal feature of light.
Later life and work
Newton was elected a member of the University of Cambridge Parliament in 1689, and then reappeared in 1701. He became the warden of the Royal Mint in London in 1696. He took up his duties at the workplace very seriously and fought against the corruption and inefficiency of the workers. From 1703 until his death, he was in the position of the president of the Royal Society. Although his research years ended, he still had a great influence on the development of science.
The royal society, in essence, served him for personal gain. It was said that he was a tyrant and autocrat, who had complete control over the lives and careers of younger members. In the end, it turned out that all the activities of the Society were carried out exclusively in accordance with Newton’s wishes. Until his death he remained the most important scientist, without a worthy opponent.
Isaac Newton was a hard man, prone to depression and debates with other scholars, but from the beginning of the 18th century he took the place of the dominant personality, both in British and in European science in general. He never married, so before the end of his life he lived with a cousin who was willing to take care of him. He died on March 31, 1727, in London, and was buried in the Westminster Abbey.
His contribution to science is clearly seen in the field of accounts, i.e. a variable mathematics that is necessary for understanding the world around us, then in the field of gravity, and in the field of optics, i.e. behavior of light. Although his discoveries originate from the period of the scientific revolution, his universal law of gravity has remained unmatched. Of course, some of Newton’s main assumptions were found to be wrong, so in the 20th century Albert Einstein proved that notions of space, distance, and movement were not absolute, as Newton claimed, but relative, and that the universe was more coherent than Newton had ever imagined.
However, with these 20th century discoveries, Newton would not have been surprised. Namely, when he was asked to evaluate his achievements before the end of his life, this great genius replied: “I do not know how the world sees me, but from my point of view, I have been my whole life just a boy playing on the shore and time to time boy finds a smoother pebble or a more beautiful shell than ordinary, while in front of me, there is a huge but undiscovered ocean of truth.”