Galileo Galilei – “Eppur si muove”
Galileo Galilei was an astronomer, physicist, mathematician and philosopher of Italian descent. He is one of the most important people in the history of science. He is considered the father of modern astronomy. Galileo has upgraded the telescope and has come up with many discoveries in astronomy such as Jupiter’s Satellites, Sunspots, Moonlight Craters and the Milky Way.
Galileo Galileo was born in Pisa on 15 February 1564. His father, Vincenzo Galilei, was a well-known composer who played lute. Galileo also played a lute. At the request of his father, Galileo studied medicine at University of Pisa, but when he was eighteen, he found that mathematics was much more interesting and then he changed his lifelong call.
Mathematics, in his opinion, also played a much more important role in understanding the world. During his studies, he formed his own philosophical thinking that confronted Aristotle’s which was dominant in education at the time.
After graduation, Galileo received a position of professor of mathematics at the University of Pisa, but due to his criticism, Aristotle was not desirable in the company of his colleagues. After three years, he resigned and went to Padua where he taught mathematics.
In Padua, he came to many discoveries of gravity, inertia, and made the first thermometer. He was intrigued by the way he moved the pendulum. No matter how hard it was, the pendulum would always move at the same speed. Speed would change only if it changed the length of the pendulum. He used his knowledge of music in his mathematical studies. He knew that the ratio of the length of the wire to the musical instrument and the height of the tone produced by the result of the mathematical calculation.
Galileo was best known for his astronomical achievements. He is the first scientist to study the sky using a telescope. He perfected the telescope. He made money selling telescopes to merchants in Venice, who wanted to find out as soon as possible whether a ship would come to earn money. Thanks to the telescope he discovered that Saturn has a ring, that the Moon is not flat but has craters, that Jupiter has its own satellites that revolve around it, not around the Sun.
It supported the heliocentric system, the astronomical system in the center of which is the Sun while Earth and other planets of the Solar System revolve around the Sun. He came to the same discoveries as Copernicus.
The Church did not support Galileo’s discoveries. Moreover, his teachings were forbidden. However, in 1623, the new Pope Urban III was a more open mind and allowed Galileo to publish his works of astronomy that supported Copernicus’s ideas. However, after the publication, the church again attacked Galileo’s beliefs. Galileo was arrested and spent several months in jail. He was condemned for heresy and was forced to publicly renounce his beliefs.
Despite his work being banned, Galileo continued his work until death. In home detention, he wrote a book on the kinetics and strength of the material.
He died after eight years of house arrest, Galileo passed away on January 8, 1642. According to the legend, the famous sentence “Eppur si muove” he said dying. It was a confirmation that he still believed in the idea of a heliocentric system, which he had previously renounced.