Carl Gustav Jung – Analytical Psychology
Carl Gustav Jung was a Swiss psychiatrist, who is considered to be the beginner of analytical psychology. Through the study of the unconscious, Jung introduced a new term – complex.
Youth and career beginning
Carl Gustav Jung was born on 26 July 1875 in Keswil, Switzerland. As the only surviving child of the Protestant priest, Jung was a quiet, lonely boy. From his early youth, he watched the behavior of adults and tried to understand it.
His father, Paul, was extremely religious, while his mother, Emily, was mentally ill. She spent most of her time in a room, so she was hospitalized later. Jung grew up convinced that he inherited a dual person from his mother. It is assumed that growing up under such circumstances had an immense influence on his later dealings with psychoanalysis.
Although it seemed as if he was destined to become a priest, Jung soon became fascinated by the philosophy, which led him to discard the family tradition and take the path of medicine. He studied at the University of Basel and the University of Zurich.
While studying at the University of Zurich, Jung worked at the Psychiatric Hospital Burgholzli , where he noticed that different words led to various emotional responses in patients. In order to explain the unusual reactions and responses of the respondents to the association test, Jung introduced the term “complex”. This term was borrowed by Jung from German psychologist Theodore Ziehen, whom Jung differently defined, and later Freud himself took over. According to Jung, the complex is the constellation of feelings, perceptions and memories that are part of the personal unconscious.
The work that emerged from this research is still used today in clinical research titled “Jun’s Associative Test”.
In 1903, Jung married Emma Rauschenbach with whom he was married until her death in 1955. However, during his marriage, Jung had several affair, including an affair with a patient at the Psychiatric Hospital Burgholzli.
Jung and Freud
As Jung, in Freud’s dream interpretations, recognized his own ideas and observations, in 1907, their cooperation began, which lasted until 1913.
The cooperation with Freud had a great influence on his later theories, and he awakened fascination with the unconscious in him. At first, Freud considered Jung his protege, but his friendship broke off when Jung’s theories began to discourage Freud’s. The dissociation in the theories are especially pointed out in the Jung’s book “Symbols of Transformation,” where he tried to explain the symbolic meaning of dreams by paralleling myths. What he could not accept was Freud’s theory of fulfilling desires and infantile sexuality.
It was only in 1954 that Jung wrote about the reasons for end of the cooperation with Freud: “The direct reason was that Freud identified his method with the theory of sexuality, which I considered unacceptable.”
In order to distinguish between his doctrine, Freud’s “psychoanalysis” and Adler’s “individual psychology,” Jung called his theory “analytical psychology”.
Jung’s theory of personality
The personality of Jung consists of several systems that interact with one another. The most important systems are I, personally unconscious and its complexes, collectively unconscious and its archetypes, persona, anima, and animus and shadow.
One of the most original and most controversial concepts of Jung’s theory of personality is collectively unconscious. If it is a personally conscious system consisting of individual suppressed experiences, it is collectively unconsciously a set of memories inherited from the past by ancient ancestors.
At the center of the analytical psychology itself is the interweaving of the collective unconscious with the ego, the process that Jung called individuation. Jung felt that the process of individuation is crucial to the development of personality as a complete human being.
In addition to these systems, there are the views of introvertiveness and extroverts, thinking, feeling and intuition.
According to Jun’s idea of introvert and extroversial personality, people can be classified into one of these two groups, depending on the model of their behavior.
An introvert person is drawn into herself, encompassed by her inner world, while extrovert is most often viewed by the world through social interaction and her interests are not limited to her own inner world.
Travel and spiritual quest
What greatly influenced Carl Jung’s further work was the trips he had devoted entirely after 1920. Jung wanted to study the psychology of primitive nations, and therefore he made his way to the road. He visited Tunisia, Algeria, spent some time among the Indians in New Mexico and Arizona, was in Kenya and Egypt. His goal was to discover the link between the unconscious contents of the modern man’s modern-day Western man and certain manifestations of the psyche of primitive civilizations, while studying their myths and cultures. He also studied the phenomenology of Buddhism and Hinduism. In the symbols of alchemy and hermetic philosophy, Jung found a parallel with the development process of the human psyche, which he explained in his work “Psychology and Alchemy”.
In 1948, Jung took part in the founding of C.G. Jung Institute in Zurich, which conveys the continuation of his learning and leaves the study of psychotherapy for some new generations.
After a short illness, Karl Gustav Jung died on June 6, 1961.