Archimedes – Number PI and Eureka!
Archimedes was Greek mathematician, physicist and astronomer; he first calculated the number pi, found the law of the lever, the law of thrust (Archimedes’ law, Archimedes scale), and wrote very important papers on geometry, arithmetic and mechanics.
He finished the school in Alexandria, Egypt, and then returned to his hometown, where he spent the rest of his life, working on research and experiments in various fields.
He was delighted to study geometric bodies, so he was responsible for the discovery and description of the ball and roller. On the other hand, in mechanics he is known as the man who discovered the principle of the lever operation, and also is attributed to the discovery of a hydraulic propeller, which can transfer water from lower levels to more.
He made a significant contribution in mechanics and astronomy. He discovered the law of the lever, first proved precisely the laws of equilibrium, clearly understood the notion of specific gravity, and in the “floating bodies” paper he established the principles of hydrostatics. He glorified great inventions in mechanics, on the basis of which Syracuse had long resisted the Roman occupation.
In addition to these discoveries, it is also known for establishing a hydrostatic law, i.e. The Archimedes Law, according to which the weight of the body, which is lost when the body sinks, or when it becomes liquid, is equal to the weight of the liquid that the body has infused into itself. It is believed that Archimedes came to this idea when he entered the bath once, and that led him to the famous exclamation – Eureka!
Although the inhabitants considered him as crazy, his discoveries for some time contributed significantly to the defense of Syracuse during the Roman conquest of Sicily in 214 BC. Namely, Archimedes worked for the welfare of the state, and several of his mechanical inventions were used in the defense of Syracuse. Among the war machines used, thanks to him, are certainly the catapult and the legendary mirror system, by which the defenders of Sicily directed the sun’s rays towards the attacking ships, and thus burned them.
After Syracuse fell under Roman rule, Archimedes was caught and killed in 212 BC.