Anton Pavlovich Chekhov – Ordinary and Everyday Hero
Anton Pavlovich Chekhov (29 January 1860, Taganrog, Russian Empire – July 15, 1904, Badenweiler, Germany) was the narrator and the most significant Russian drama writer.
He was born as the third of six children of the merchant Pavel Yegorovich and Yevgeniya Yakovlev Morozov. From 1876 to 1879 Chekhov attends elementary and high school in Taganrog, often visits the theater, publishes texts and edits school newspapers. Chekhov’s father went bankrupt in 1876 and moved with his family to Moscow, while Anton remained in Taganrog. At that time, Chekhov wrote his first drama “No father”, which was not found until today. Anton P. Chekhov graduates from high school in 1879 and moves to Moscow, where he enrolls medicine at the Moscow University. During the studies he published anonymous articles in student magazines, he soon took the pseudonym of Antosha Cehonte under which he wrote in the magazines Petersburg Gazette, New Time, Oskolki and the Russian Thought. Between 1880 and 1887 he writes even under pseudonyms: The Doctor Who Lost His Patients, My Brother’s Brother, The Man Without … and so on.
In 1881, Chekhov wrote a drama that later became known under Platon’s name, and it is interesting that this drama was issued only in 1923, almost 20 years after the author’s death. He studied medicine and was a dental practitioner, but because of his unfinished graduate thesis he did not get a master’s degree. He starts a practice, and in the same year he publishes a collection of stories about Melpomenine’s story, and in December he suffers from the symptoms of tuberculosis. In 1884 he also wrote the Monster on the Main Road. The one-act operation takes place in the cruise on the main road, the text did not pass the censorship and was estimated to be unsuitable for performance, and was first published in 1914 on the ten-year anniversary of the death of Chechnya. A year later Chekhov travels to St. Petersburg, where he meets the publisher Aleksey Suvorin and the painter Isaac Levitan with whom he becomes a close friend, and soon he begins to write and publish the texts in Suvorin’s New Year newspaper. In April 1890, Chekhov went on a journey through Siberia to the island of Sakhalin, where as a physician he was investigating life in detention camps, after which he sailed to Tihim and the Indian Ocean and traveled until October of that same year. Travels were constant in Chekhov’s life, so in 1891 he went on a tour of Western Europe, and in the same year he published the novel The Duel. He buys a small estate in Melikhovo, where helives with his family.
Cholera epidemic occurs in the period between 1892 and 1893, and Chekhov as one of the leading people in the provincial sanitary commission. He publishes 11 stories including My wife and Cricket. His health worsens in 1894 and travels to Italy and Paris. He publishes Student, Teacher of Literature, Black Monk.
Constantin Sergeyev Stanislavski and Vladimir Nemirovich Danchenko opened the Moscow Hardwood Theater in 1897, which will soon have a major impact on Chekhov’s further work. Chekhov’s father dies, and he was in the hospital for the first acute pulmonary tuberculosis attack. In September he traveled to France for a treatment. In May 1898 Anton Pavlovich Chekhov returns from abroad and lives for some time at Jalta, where he survives another TB attack.
Chekhov sells all the copyrights to his publisher A.F. Marks for 75,000 rubles, which would amount to about $ 80,000 today, and begins to edit his collected work. In the same year he was awarded the The Order of Saint Stanislaus for work in education. He writes and publishes texts at the official work, Daddy, the Lady with the Petticoat. That flight sells a property in Melikhovo and builds a house on Jalta. In June, censors forbid performing the Chekhovian drama in low-cost workshops for the working class.
After that, the health of Anton Pavlovich Chekhov is worsens. At the beginning of June, Chekhov travels with his wife Olga to receive treatment in Germany where he died on July 15 in Badenweiler.
Anton P. Chekhov is called the initiator of psychological realism. In his plays there is no typical dramatic conflict, but all that is happening in the drama stems from psychological states, feelings and inner conflict of characters. Chekhov in his plays also insists on the flow of time that is one of the mechanisms of events in which changes occur and the description of the action are very detailed, which contributes to the general understanding of the characters and their psychological states.
Chekhov realized the value of his talent, left the humorous prose and turned to stories and novels. Humorous serenity has replaced a gloomy view of life and man. In short prose he achieved the greatest achievements by becoming one of the world’s masters of novelty. Simplicity and sensitivity – these are the features of Chekhov’s narration.
Chekhov’s most famous stories and novels are: A man in the pillow, Pavilion 6, Chameleon, Villagers, Sorrow, Cain’s death. Another area of Chekhov’s literary work is drama: Ivanov (1887), Seagul (1896), Uncle Vanya (1897), Three Sisters (1900). There are no interesting complications, turbulent events and emotional explosions. He created a psychological drama of the atmosphere, rich lyrical overflows, strong suggestions, calm tones. His plays significantly influenced the course of the development of European drama.
The richness of the motif is distinguished by Chekhov’s literary work: nonsense, bureaucracy, false sizes, chameleonship, prostitution, failure, spiritual deprivation, social misery, injustice and inequality, work, beauty, love. The work is intensely present as an ideal, a sense of life, a need. Beauty in general, the beauty of nature, the beauty of women; beauty as a harmony of body and spirit, the beauty of the soul, goodness as beauty, nobility. Chekhov is interested in intellectual and spiritual desertion, dead, reluctant, boredom, void. They act destructively, outrage their lives, overshadow the future. There are those who are missing and lost in Chekhov’s code, who have not received anything from life and fall into hopelessness and absolute pessimism. There is a social moment: injustice, misery, backwardness, starvation. It shows Chekhov and peasants, clerks and intellectuals, the poor and the rich. He sees all these heroes in simple situations (“life situations”) to which the story of a story or drama comes down. The situations are ordinary and everyday, but carefully selected and artistically perfectly presented.