Andre Marie Ampere – The Father of Cybernetics
Andre Marie Ampere (Lyon, January 20, 1775 – Marseilles, June 10, 1836) was famous French physicist, mathematician and naturalist, member of not only Parisian Academy of Sciences (1814), but also a member of many foreign academies of science and honorary member of the St. Peterburg Academy of Sciences (1830). Founder of electrodynamics. He designed the theory of magnetism in an inseparable connection with electricity and studied the interaction of electric currents. To honor him, his name was given to the unit for measuring the power of the electric current.
The areas in which Ampere conducted significant research are mathematics, mechanics and physics. He performed the largest research work in physics in the field of electrodynamics. In 1820, he established a rule for determining the direction of the effect of the magnetic field of an electrical conductor on a magnetic needle, known as the Ampere’s rule. In numerous experiments, he examined the interaction between the magnet and the electric current; For this purpose he invented a series of instruments; has determined that the Earth’s magnetic field affects the moving conductor with electric current. In the same year, he discovered the mutual bondage of two electric currents, laid down the law for this phenomenon (Ampere’s law), developed the theory of magnetism, and proposed the use of electromagnetic processes for the transmission of signals.
Ampere considered that the interaction of the magnet was the result of the interaction of the so-called. circular molecular currents within magnets that create magnetic fields like small thin magnets, or magnetic sheets. This statement is known as Ampere’s theorem. Therefore, a large magnet consists of a series of elemental magnets. This is the essence of a profound belief of scientists that magnetism originates from electric current and is closely related to electricity.
In 1822, Ampere discovered the magnetic affinity of a solenoid (electrical coil), from which came the conclusion about the identity of the magnetic field of the solenoid and the magnetic field of a permanent magnet. So the idea was born to create a stronger magnetic field using an iron core, located inside a solenoid. In 1826, a magnetic field circulation theorem was proved. In 1829 Ampere invented commutator and electromagnetic telegraph. In mechanics they are attributed to the formulation of the notion of kinematics. In 1830, Ampere introduced the scientific concept of cybernetics.
Thanks to the all-round talent, Ampere left a mark in the history of chemistry, which gives him one of the honorable pages, and considers him, together with Avogadro, the author of the important law of modern chemistry.
In honor of the scientist, the power units are called amps, and the corresponding measuring instrument is an ammeter (from Ampere Meter).