Anders Celsius – Swedish Astronomer, Physicist and Mathematician
Anders Celsius was a Swedish astronomer, physicist and mathematician, who invented a thermometer scale, which is named after him. He was one of the most important scientists, whos discoveries significantly influenced the development of society.
Anders Celsius was born on November 27, 1701, in Uppsala, Sweden. As his father, Nils Celsius, was a professor of astronomy, and his grandfather Magnus Celsius was amathematician. At young age Anders also decided to deal with the doctrine. Even as a child he was talented for metrics. He studied at the University of Uppsala, where his father taught, and in 1730 he himself became a professor of astronomy at that faculty.
In 1730, Celsius published the paper “A New Method of Excercising the Distance between the Earth and the Sun”. In addition to lectures at the faculty, Anders also engaged in scientific research. Among his first experiments there was the appearance of polar light. Anders Celsius is one of the first scientists to come to the conclusion that there is a connection between this light and changes in the magnetic field of the Earth. Observing the changes to the compass, he discovered that the sudden rotation of the needle on the compass is associated with polar light. He published 316 works on the subject of polar light, which he wrote from 1716 to 1732.
Celsius often traveled to Germany, Italy, and France, visiting prominent observatories. In his research, he also studied the shape of the Earth. He was appointed Director of the University where he taught in 1740, and in 1741, Celsius founded an astronomical observatory at the University of Uppsala, in the name of observatories in European metropolises. He has equipped his own observatory with state-of-the-art equipment and instruments.
Celsius is the first scientist in astronomy to try to measure the brightness of stars, using other instruments in addition to the human eye. In these trials he used glass colored panels.
Celsius invented the famous Celsius thermometer scale in 1742, taking 100 degrees of water spray, and for the boiling point 0 degrees. In 1745, Carl von Linne reversed the scale for easier and more convenient calculation.
Celsius is the secretary of the Royal Society of Science in Uppsala in 1725. He remained in his position until his death on April 25, 1744