Albert Einstein – The Greatest Mind in History of Human Kind
Albert Einstein (Ulm, March 14, 1879 – Princeton, April 18, 1955) was a theoretical physicist, one of the greatest minds and most important figures in the history of the world.
Albert Einstein formulated a special and general theory of relativity that revolutionized modern physics. In addition, he contributed to the advancement of quantum theory and statistical mechanics. Although best known for his theory of relativity (in particular by mass and energy equivalence E = mc²), the Nobel Prize in Physics was given to him in 1921 for the explanation of the photoelectric effect (work published in 1905 in Annus Mirabilis or “Years of Miracles”) as well as for the contribution development of theoretical physics. In the World, the name “Einstein” is synonymous with a man of high intelligence or a genius.
The subject of his research were the capillary forces, especially the theory of relativity (by which he united the laws of mechanics and electromagnetics), the General Theory of Relativity (the generalization of the Special Theory, which included accelerated motion and gravity), cosmology, statistical mechanics, Brownian motion, critical opalescence, in the atom, problems of probabilistic interpretation of quantum theory, thermodynamics of light at low radiation density, photoelectric effect, photoluminescence, photonization, secondary cathode rays, radiation radiation, stimulated radiation emission, unified field theory, unification of basic physical concepts through their geometrization, etc.
Childhood and schooling
Albert Einstein was born in Ulm, Germany, on March 14, 1879, as the first child of Herman and Pauline Einstein. When he was born, the parents were afraid that Albert would not be like all the other kids because his head was much larger than the body. Doctors considered this disorder to be benign macrocephalus for which the boy would have difficulty in developing. Despite this, Albert grew up in a healthy boy, and this feature disappeared.
The Einstein family moved to Munich, where Albert attended elementary school and then to the famous Luitpold Gymnasium. He was an average student, but very interested in mathematics and physics. He did not like gymnasium classes because he was forced to teach lessons in the mind and adhere to strict discipline. When he was 15 years old, he left school without any diploma and moved with his family to Milan. In order to compensate for his high school diploma, he enrolled in a school in Switzerland from 1895 to 1896. After that, he went to study in Zurich. He wanted to get a degree and to work as a professor of mathematics and physics. He successfully completed studies in 1900.
After studying, Einstein moved to Bern and hired at the Swiss Patent Office. In his spare time he dealt with the theory of physics. In 1905, he published several important scientific papers. The most significant of them is the revolutionary theory of relativity. His work “Does the inertia of the body depend on its energy content?” contains its most famous formula E = mc² which claims that matter can be converted into energy. The same year he published a series of scientific papers called “Anali Physics”.
In 1903, Albert Einstein married Mileva Maric. On the first day of the Cannier, the pair received the first son, Hans Albert, and in 1910, the second, Eduard. In 1909, Einstein became a professor at the University of Zurich. Later he was a professor in Prague, and then again in Zurich. In 1914, he was called to engage in scientific research in Berlin, but then the First World War began.
In 1919 Einstein divorced Mileva Maric and married his cousin Elsa. From 1909 to 1916, he worked on the generalization of the Special Theory of Relativity. After the theory was scientifically proven in the experiment in 1919, Einstein became known overnight. He received calls for ceremonies and honors from all parts of the world. There was no magazine that did not write about him and praised his work. He received the Nobel Prize in physics in 1921.
In 1906, Einstein was promoted to second-class technical examiner. In 1908, he received a license to work in Bern, Switzerland, as a privatdocent (Privatdozent) (unpaid teacher at the university). During this time, Einstein describes why the sky is blue in its work on the occurrence of critical opalescence, which shows the cumulative effects of light scattering on individual molecules in the atmosphere.
In 1911, Einstein became an associate professor at the University of Zurich, and shortly thereafter a regular professor at the German speaking section of Charles University in Prague. While in Prague, Einstein published a paper in which he invites astronomers to check two predictions of his General Theory of Relativity that is still in development, namely the bending of light in the gravitational field, measurable during the Sun’s twilight, and the gravitational red shift of the Sun’s spectral lines in relation to the corresponding spectral lines produced on the surface of the Earth. Young German astronomer Erwin Freundlich begins to cooperate with Einstein and excites other astronomers around the world in connection with these Einstein astronomical checks.
In 1912, Einstein returns to Zurich in order to become a full professor at ETH Zurich. At the time, he works closely with mathematician Marcel Grosmann, who introduces him to Riemannian geometry. In 1912, Einstein began to call time the fourth dimension (although Herbert George Wells did it the same earlier in his work The Time Machine of 1895) In 1914, just before the start of World War I, Einstein settles in Berlin as a professor at a local university and becomes a member of the Prussian Academy of Sciences. He takes Prussian citizenship. From 1914 to 1933, he was the director of Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Physics in Berlin. He also holds the post of associate professor at Leiden University from 1920 to 1946, where he regularly hosts guest lectures.
In 1917, Einstein published “On the Quantum Mechanics of Radiation”, or in the original, “Zur Quantentheorie der Strahlung”, Physkalische Zeitschrift 18, 121-128). This article introduces the concept of stimulated emission, a physical principle that allows the intensification of light in the laser. Also in the same year, he published a paper in which he used the General Theory of Relativity to build a model of the entire universe, preparing such a stage for the advent of modern physical cosmology. In this paper he introduces a well-known cosmological constant, which later, as George Gough claims, in one of his conversations called “the greatest blunder of his life” (“the greatest mistake in his life”).
On May 14, 1904, Albert and Mileva’s first son, Hans Albert Einstein, were born. Their second son, Eduard Einstein, was born on July 28, 1910. Hans Albert later became a professor of hydraulic engineering at the University of California, Berkeley, having very little contact with his father, but sharing his love of sailing and music . The younger brother, Eduard, wanted to develop a Freudian psychoanalyst practice, but he was institutionalized for schizophrenia and died in one asylum. Einstein divorced from Mileva on February 14, 1919, to marry Elsa Löwenthal, born Einstein, (Löwenthal was the surname of her first husband, Max) on June 2, 1919. Elsa was Albert’s first cousin on her mother’s side, and his cousin in the second knee on his father’s side. She was three years older than Albert, and nursed him as a nurse, after suffering a partial breakdown of nerves combined with severe abdominal pain. There were no children in this marriage.
Because of the political situation in Nazi Germany, Einstein left the country in December 1932 and never came to her again. Since 1933 he has lived in Princeton, in the United States, with his family. At the Institute for Advanced Studies he finds ideal working conditions. In December 1936, his wife, Elza, died, and World War II began three years later. Fearing that Germany was working on atomic bombs, Einstein wrote to President Ruzvelt to warn him of the danger of atomic weapons.
He spent the last years of his life in Princeton. He worked hard on the new theory, the Unified Field Theory, which, unfortunately, was not successful. Albert Einstein died on April 18, 1955, at the age of 76, and left behind over 50 significant scientific papers that changed the world of physics.
FUN FACTS ABOUT ALBERT EINSTEIN
Pupils around the world whose knowledge of mathematics is weaker, often found comfort in the statement that Albert Einstein was a bad mathematician, which proved to be incorrect because the data show that he was actually an outstanding student. During his schooling in Munich, Albert had high marks, but he was frustrated, as he called it, by the mechanical discipline required by the professors. A future Nobel laureate left school when he was 15 and left from Germany to avoid regular military service, but by then he was among the best in his class and was even considered a genius for understanding the complex mathematical and scientific concepts. When he later published a newspaper article claiming to have fallen out of mathematics, Einstein dismissed it as untrue and stated that the differential and integral account had been overcome before he was 15 years old.
In 1896 Einstein renounced German citizenship and enrolled in the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich where he met Serbian scientist Mileva Maric and began a passionate love affair with her. The couple graduated after graduation and got two sons, but a year before marriage, Mileva gave birth to a daughter named Lieserl . Einstein never mentioned this child, and biographers did not even know that it existed until his private papers and documents were taken for examination in the 1980s. The fate of this child is still a mystery today and encounters mixed feelings: some believe that she died of an infectious disease of in 1903, while others consider that she has survived the disease and is being given for adoption somewhere in Serbia.
After the marriage of Mileva Maric and Albert encountered difficulties in the second decade of the 20th century, the famous physicist left his family, moved to Berlin and began a love affair with his cousin Elsa. The marriage between two scientists was finally interrupted by a divorce in 1919, and Einstein offered Mileva Maric an annual scholarship as well as money from the Nobel Prize, which he was sure to get. Mileva accepted the offer, and he later gave her a little fortune after receiving the Nobel Prize, which he received in 1922 for her work on the phytoelectric effect. At that time, he was already married to Elsa with whom she remained married until her death in 1936.
In 1915, Einstein published his theory of relativity, which claimed that gravitational fields cause disturbances in the tissue of time and space. As this was just a blind rewriting of the laws of physics, the theory remained controversial until May 1919, when the total solar eclipse provided the appropriate conditions for testing this claim that the supermassive object, in this case the Sun, could cause a measurable curve in the path of a star going next to him. Hoping to prove Einstein’s theories once and for all, English scientist Arthur Eddington traveled to the coast of West Africa to photograph the eclipse. By analyzing the photographs, he came to the conclusion that the sun’s gravity turned the light air just as much as it predicts general relativity. This news was celebrated by Einstein overnight. Newspapers proclaimed him the successor to Isaac Newton, and he traveled all over the world to hold lectures on his theories about the universe. According to Einstein’s biography, Walter Eisenon, over the next six years, after eclipse in 1919, over 600 books and articles on relativity theory were published.
Immediately before Hitler came to power in 1933, Einstein left Germany and moved to the United States where he was promoted to the Princeton Advanced Studies Institute. His support for pacifists, civil rights and leftist movements has already provoked suspicion of the Federal Investigation Bureau (FBI), and after arriving at the American soil, the bureau started what would later become full-time oversight over the next 22 years. Agents were eavesdropping on telephone conversations, opening mail, and digging in trash hoping to expose him as a subversive or Soviet spy. The FBI still remained empty, but at the time Einstein died, his file was an incredible 1,800 pages.
Although he was not particularly religious, Einstein felt a deep connection with his Jewish heritage and often spoke against anti-Semitism. After the death of the first president of Israel, Haim Weiman in 1952, the country’s government offered a well-known scientist to the presidential post. Einstein rejected this offer, and in a letter to the Israeli ambassador he stated that he had been dealing with objective things for the whole of his life, and that he therefore lacked the ability and experience to properly treat people and perform the function.
Albert Einstein passed away in April 1955 from an aneurysm of the abdominal aorta. His request was to be cremated after his death, but Princeton pathologist Thomas Harvey pulled out the scientist’s brain during the autopsy and saved him in the hope of discovering the secrets of this genius. After receiving Einstein’s son’s approval, Harvey cut the brain into several parts that he sent to various scientists for interrogation. Since 1980, several studies have been conducted on Einstein’s brain, but they are all discredited. Perhaps the most famous of them was the one published by experts from the Canadian University in 1999, in which Einstein claimed that he had unusual clutches on the parietal lobe, a part of the brain that is related to mathematical and spatial abilities.