Sigmund Freud – Id, Ego and Superego
Sigmund Freud was an Austrian doctor and psychiatrist. He was one of those people who shocked his contemporaries, but he changed the way we think about ourselves.
The psychological terms he introduced, such as the id, the ego, the superego, and the Edip complex, which we use today on a daily basis. He is the founder of psycholanalysis-the theory of personality. It is impossible to imagine how his theories were unrealistic to his contemporaries, because even today he does not cease to impress us with his ideas. His work still has a great influence on psychology, literature, art and philosophy.
Childhood and education Sigmund Freud
Sigmund Freud was born on May 6, 1856 in Freiburg. At four years he moved with his parents to Vienna, where his father got a better job. Even as a child, he was extremely clever and because of that, parents paid more attention to him than to his other children. His parents had seven children and lived in a small apartment, and only Sigmund had a room and an oil lamp, while the rest of the children used candles in learning.
As a child, he dreamed of becoming a general or a minister, but since he was a Jew, he could only study medicine or law. He spoke French, Italian, Spanish and English and studied the works of Nietzsche, Hegel, Kant and Shakespeare. In 1873, Freud enrolled in medical studies in Vienna. Then he met Martha Bernays, whom he later married.
After studying, he participated in the research work of physiology. He compared the brains of adults and fetuses. He then examined the properties of cocaine, which had the properties of anesthetics, and he tried it on himself. In Paris, he investigated the causes and therapy of hysteria together with the famous neurologist Jean-Martin Charcot. Hypnosis was used as part of therapy. Josef Breuer, a Vienna doctor, had a great influence on Freud. From which Freud took over the hypnosis technique, he later developed the “free association technique”.
In 1886, Freud returns from Paris to Vienna and marries Marta, with whom he entertained five years, and opens his own private practice. The two had six children, three sons and three daughters. One of his daughters, Ana Freud, will later become a respected psychoanalyst theoretically in the field of child psychology. His wife Marta was dedicated to the children and to him, while he was busy with his work.
In 1895, Freud and Breuer published the book “Studies of Hysteria”, a work that marks the phenomenon of psychoanalysis. Freud published the book “Dream interpretation” in 1900.
Freud was extremely discerning and had an incredible power of perception. In his work he was, perhaps even too pedantic and organized. He went to the same barber every day, and every Saturday he went to a game with the same company. However, he was highly valued in Vienna and quickly gained the same minds. He founded the International Society of Psychoanalysts.
Freud published his most popular book “Psychopathology of Everyday Life” in 1904. In this book he describes how through lapses and errors we can find out unconscious feelings. After that, he published many books, articles and lectures.
The last years of his life were filled with an accident. His two sons were in the army during the First World War. One of his daughters died from the flu in 1920. Freud got cancer. When Adolf Hitler assumed power in Germany, many Freud’s books were burned.
Four of his sisters died in concentration camps, and after his youngest daughter was taken to the police for questioning, Freud left Vienna with his family and went to England. Freud was suffering from cancer of which he died in London on September 23, 1939, at the age of 83.
Freud’s theories changed the vision of man and his consciousness. Freud thinks that human psyche consists of three parts: id, ego, and superego.
Id – a completely unconscious, impulsive, irrational part of the personality, which demands the immediate satisfaction of the instinct and desire. It is guided by the principle of satisfaction.
Ego – partly conscious and rational part of the personality, which is guided by the principle of reality.
Superego – a moral part of a personality that represents internal learned values taken from society and adopted by parents. Superego represents our conscience. With him we evaluate what is acceptable and moral, and what is not.