# Stephen Hawking – The Blackhole

Stephen Hawking is an English theoretical physicist, best known for improving the understanding of space, time, and black holes in the cosmos. He was born in Oxford, England, on January 8, 1942. He grew up among very educated people. His parents graduated at Oxford.

Stephen was interested in mathematics and physics as a boy, so they gave him the nickname Einstein at school. He wanted to study at Oxford as well as his parents, and in 1959 he enrolled there. He chose physics and chemistry for the main subjects. After that, he enrolled in doctoral studies at Cambridge.

He became a member of the Royal Society in 1974. While working on his doctorate at Cambridge, his medical condition began to deteriorate. His speech became undeveloped, and Stephen was often clumsy, dropping the objects and falling for no apparent reason. After numerous medical tests, he was diagnosed with a disease called ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis). The doctors assumed that they would only survive for a few more years.

Although he was initially scolded for diagnosis, he decided there are more things he wants to do for his life. He began to learn and explore more than ever. He wanted to get a doctorate before he died. At about that time, he met and fell in love with Jane Wilde, whom he later married.

He continued his mathematical work mentally and communicated it only in its final form. His life work represents an extraordinary victory over severe physical disability.

Hawking began studying the general theory of relativity, noting that Einstein’s theory does not explain the quantum mechanical nature of physics and is unable to adequately describe gravitational singularities such as “black holes” or “big bangs.” In the book The Large Scale Structure of Space-Time (G. F. R. Ellis, 1973), space-time singularity has to appear at the beginning of the universe and only space and time; it was a “big bang” (a point of the infinitely high density of space-time curvature). The universe is expanding from that point.

Hawking has greatly enhanced our knowledge of black holes – they are a singularity in time and space, caused by a mass sufficient to conceal space so that light waves (photons) can not be transmitted. The boundary within which the light can not go out is called the horizon of events and is given by the Schwarzschild radius. Hoking found that the horizon of events can only increase or remain constant over time, so that if two black holes disappear, the area of the newly created area would be larger than the sum of the surface of the components.

He showed that black hole mechanics has parallels in the laws of thermodynamics (according to which entropy must grow with time). He also showed that black holes are not only due to collapse of stars, but also because of collapse and other highly compressed regions of space.

In the period from 1970 to 1974, Hawking and his associates proved to the hypothesis (known as “ni-hairs” of the theorem) Wheeler (J. Wheeler, 1911-2008) that only mass, angular momentum and electric charge were preserved once the substance had reached in a black hole.

In 1974, Hawking came to an extraordinary result that black holes could emit heat radiation. For example, if a pair of anti-particle particles originate in the vicinity of the event horizon, and only one is inside it, then the black hole effectively emits heat radiation. The final temperature must therefore be connected to a black hole, and the analogy between the black hole and thermodynamics mechanics is real. Indirect evidence for the current existence of black holes in the center of active galaxies is now assured: there is some evidence that in the center of our galaxy, the Milky Way, there is a black hole.

Something sooner Hawking undertook to formulate a consistent quantum mechanic theory of gravity, which would link gravity with the other three basic types of force (weak nuclear, strong nuclear and electromagnetic interaction). His non-technical book A Brief History of Time (1988) was an outstanding publishing success. He became an honorary companion of the Queen, 1989.

Stephen Hawking, with the help of science and medicine, lives a productive and fulfilled life. Although he must move with wheelchairs and can not speak, he is enabled to communicate with the help of a voice simulator.

Stephen’s research focuses on space-time singularity and black hole theory. He wrote many important papers on his research and was recognized as an expert on relativity and black holes. His most prominent discovery is to prove that black holes emit radiation. This radiation became known as “Hawking Radiation”.

Steven Hawking also enjoys writing books. In 1988, his book “A Short History of Time” was published. In it, Hawking talks about the theory of big bang and black holes in a way that is understandable to the ordinary reader. The book has become very popular and sold in millions of copies. Hoking wrote many more books after the “Short History of the Time”, including “The Cosmos in the Walnut Shell” and “On the Guts of the Giants.”