1927 Solvay Conference – The Birth of Modern Physics
On October 25, 1927, the most famous Fifth Solvay Conference held in International Solvay Institutes for Physics and Chemistry, located in Brussels, is considered one of the most important crossroads on the path of development of modern civilization. Solvay’s conferences marked scientific and technological development in the long term – in the most valued sense, the world’s leading scientists faced various conception and vision of the structure of the world during these conferences, which for decades have followed the way of thinking about nature.
The first Solve Conference was held in 1911 at the Metropolis Hotel in Brussels, when the Belgian scientist and industrialist Ernest Solvay (1838-1922) called the then most famous physicists to Brussels. It was practically the first world physics congress where the final break of Newton’s vision of the world and the point where physics entered the new age.
Otherwise, Solvay is a scientist who discovered several important chemical processes in the second half of the 19th century, including the so-called Solvay process, the process of obtaining sodium carbonate, also known as soda. On the basis of his discoveries, he founded a number of factories that have brought him enormous wealth, and just like Nobel before him, Solvay has invested in promoting science and culture.
Since the first Congress proved successful, Solvey decided to regularly sponsor similar conferences. Since then, only scientists have been invited by the call, chosen to represent the very top of world physics and chemistry. There are no self-reported participants at the conferences, and only a few selected Belgian scientists are allowed to sit in the audience and listen to the discussions.
In the history of Solvey’s conferences, no doubt the most significant was the fifth in a row. It was held after Solvay’s death in October 1927, and gathered twenty-nine world physicists, including 19 Nobel Prize winners.
The Worlds Most Famous Debate
Within the subject “Electronics and photons”, they discussed the interpretations of quantum mechanics and the Hiesenberg principle, and the event was marked by a mythical debate between Albert Einstein and Niels Bohr on whether “God throws dices”. The discussions were so intense and full of terminological digressions that the Austrian physicist Paul Ehrenfest, a close friend to both Albert Einstein and Niels Bohr sided with Bohr, hoping to put the debate to an end.
“The lack of willingness to give up the deterministic nature description, in principle, was most evident by Einstein. He challenged us with arguments, “wrote forty years later the creator of quantum mechanics Niels Bohr. Namely, after Solvey’s fifth conference, quantum mechanics became rounded up as a science.
It is believed that after the great debate Borh’s stochastic interpretation prevailed Einstein’s skepticism and the new physics in the coming decades will, step by step, lead to the development of nuclear technology and the emergence of atomic weapons, as well as the development of transistors and electronics that we know today.
A. Piccard, E. Henriot, P. Ehrenfest, E. Herzen, Th. de Donder, E. Schrödinger, J.E. Verschaffelt, W. Pauli, W. Heisenberg, R.H. Fowler, L. Brillouin;
P. Debye, M. Knudsen, W.L. Bragg, H.A. Kramers, P.A.M. Dirac, A.H. Compton, L. de Broglie, M. Born, N. Bohr;